PRODUCED IN A 3 MVA PLASMA FURNACE 21 INTRODUCTION The smelting of ilmenite requires fine control of the smelting process in order to produce an acceptable slag product on a consistent basis This section will deal with some of the characteristics of the slag product The aims of this section of the study are as follows:
Ilmenite smelting: the basics PC PISTORIUS Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria While some of the practical details of ilmenite smelting are not well documented, there is a substantial body of literature on the principles of ilmenite smelting, and the behaviour of solidified titania slag
Modelling of an ilmenite-smelting DC arc furnace process
Ilmenite can also be improved and purified to rutile using the Becher process Ilmenite ores can also be converted to liquid iron and a titanium-rich slag using a smelting process Ilmenite ore is used as a flux by steelmakers to line blast furnace hearth refractory
Smelting is used to upgrade ilmenite (FeOTiO 2) to high‐titania slags which serve as feedstocks for TiO 2 pigment manufacture During smelting, partial reduction of FeO to liquid iron, and of TiO 2 to Ti 2 O 3, occursLower FeO levels in the solidified slag correlate with higher Ti 2 O 3Since some pigment manufacturers limit the allowable Ti 2 O 3 level in the slag, the origin of this .
Ilmenite smelting: the basics , In ilmenite smelting furnaces, a freeze lining of solidified slag is used to protect the furnace refractories against the aggressive titanium slag Freeze lining .
EQUILIBRIUM INTERACTIONS BETWEEN FREEZE LINING AND SLAG IN ILMENITE SMELTING 237 Background Ilmenite smelting is one of the methods to upgrade the iron-titanium oxide mineral ilmenite to a high-titanium feedstock for rutile pigment manufacture The product of ilmenite smelting is a high-titanium slag, which typically contains around 9% FeO, 50% TiO
The smelting operations were expanded in 1999, with the commissioning of a second 35 MW DC-arc furnace Despite the fact that ilmenite smelting poses a technical challenge in terms of the high temperatures required, the physical characteristics of the slag, the constraints placed on the feedstock, and the tight product specifications, Namakwa .
Cristal's Ilmenite Smelter Project, in Jazan, Saudi Arabia, has experienced a technical issue, parent company Saudi Arabian National Industrialization Co (Tasnee) said this week The issue arose during an attempted start-up of one of the furnaces, causing the furnace to be shut down on Sunday October 29
Solid state and smelting reduction of ilmenite is an important process of upgrading ilmenite to high titania feedstock In this study, an ilmenite concentrate supplied by Panzhihua Iron and Steel (Group) Co was first reduced at solid state in an electric resistance furnace, followed by smelting reduction in an induction furnace
Outotec has made a EUR 110 million provision for possible costs relating to the ilmenite smelter project in Saudi Arabia (Stock Exchange Releases on May 31, 2012; October 26, 2018; and October 30, 2018) The currently estimated provision is based on progress made with the analysis of the furnace The provision is booked in Outotec's fourth .
Energy balance and offgas utilization of ilmenite smelting in 30 MVA direct current electric arc furnace (DC furnace) of a Yunnan company were investigated to make sure safety production, and to save energy and reduce pollution The total input energy in the DC furnace was 2,000 kWh per ton of ilmenite, in which 1,00331 kWh per ton of ilmenite was used to carbothermic reduction and other .
1650°C) Ilmenite smelting thus yields two products: a titania-rich slag, and molten iron This is in contrast with the Becher process, where the iron is removed as a waste product Ilmenite smelting as practised in South Africa (at Richards Bay Minerals, Namakwa Sands, and Exxaro KZN Sands) uses an electric furnace (AC or DC) to provide the .
A mathematical model of the entire ilmenite-smelting furnace process was constructed This model incorporated the two models mentioned above and was able to describe the metal bath, slag bath, furnace atmosphere, freeze lining, furnace sidewall and ,
Example 3: DC arc furnace for ilmenite smelting •Same DC arc furnace equipment can be used for very different reasons •Titania slag is highly conductive, therefore an open arc is required •Slag is a valuable product; contamination must be avoided •Degree of reduction must be carefully controlled, therefore no electrode immersion
ilmenite-smelting campaigns on the 3 MVA pilot furnace at Kumba Resources’ Research and Development faciliti These campaigns varied in length from one week to six weeks, with the majority being of the order of two weeks The objectives of these campaigns included the following: • Testing of different feedstocks for ilmenite smelting
Tasnee declares delay of operation in titanium ilmenite smelter plant Tasnee announced that during the start-up of furnace 1 of the plant at the ilmenite smelter project to produce high-grade titanium feedstock, a technical issue was encountered
In this new mega size ilmenite smelter, Outotec’s ferroalloy smelting technology is applied for processing the ilmenite to titanium dioxide slag The plant’s initial annual capacity will be .
The furnace off-gas is cooled and cleaned in a wet scrubber, and re-used in other parts of the plant Upstream of the furnace, the ilmenite and anthracite are dried in fluid bed driers fuelled by furnace gas The feed of ilmenite and anthracite to the furnace is ,
This paper revolves around the results obtained from conducting an ilmenite smelting campaign on a 500kW DC open-arc furnace with a UCAR designed refractory system The purpose of this test was to es-tablish the effects such a lining has on refractory wear and the reduction-smelting process
Apr 16, 2020· There are previous studies about the ilmenite smelting process in conjunction with pre-oxidation treatment, which improves the reactivity of ilmenite 6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13
With reference to the announcement published on Tadawul on October 30th, 2018 relating to the Ilmenite Smelter Project for the production of high-grade titanium feedstock (the ‘Plant’), TASNEE announces that after turning off the furnace and the end of the cooling period that lasted for nearly a month, a root cause analysis carried out together with global experts resulted in identifying .
Ilmenite can also be improved and purified to rutile using the Becher process Ilmenite ores can also be converted to liquid iron and a titanium-rich slag using a smelting process Ilmenite ore is used as a flux by steelmakers to line blast furnace hearth ,
ilmenite smelting reductants, and linking these properties to the subsequent smelting behaviour in the furnace The reduction mechanism of ilmenite smelting is not fully understood, but it is believed that the Boudouard reaction plays a role This paper investigates the behaviour of a number of reductants when reacted with CO2 at different .
Mar 01, 2009· Furnace Modeling Zietsman and Pistorius constructed a one-dimensional wall model to illustrate the dynamic response of the furnace sidewall and freeze lining resulting from interactions with the liquid slag bath and changing conditions in the bath 1 A schematic representation of the freeze lining and wall region of an ilmenite-smelting DC arc furnace is shown in Figure 2
Project facts Developer: Cristal Construction Company: Outotec Structural Designer: Pöyry Architect: Hyder Delivery year: 2013-2014 Completion year: 2015
Tasnee announced that during the start-up of furnace 1 of the plant at the ilmenite smelter project to produce high-grade titanium feedstock, a technical issue was encountered
Michael Gasik, in Handbook of Ferroalloys, 2013 1522 Reduction of Titanium from Oxid Reduction of titanium from ilmenite and rutile by carbon proceeds first with the reduction of iron oxides and later with the reduction of titanium, which partially dissolves in ion melt and partially transforms into carbide (TiC) Smelting of ilmenite with carbon usually leads to the formation of Fe-Ti-C .
412 AC smelting AC smelting of ilmenite as applied by QIT uses large, rectangular six in line el ectrodes, open arc, high power furnaces each with a capacity of up to 250,000 tpa of slag A high quality reductant, such as anthracite, is charged in the furnace with the ilmenite The QIT tech nology is very tightly held, with its application being
Anthracites are utilised in the reduction of ilmenite in most South African ilmenite processing plants The smelting mechanism reported by Pistorius (2008) involves the reduction of iron oxide and titanium dioxide, in the ilmenite, using carbon monoxide (generated by the Boudouard reaction) to
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